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《关于宝马5系论坛=搜新网最新相关内容》:(1.) Can the driving power be employed directly to shift the belts of a planing machine?—(2.) Why are planing machines generally constructed with a running carriage instead of running tools?—(3.) What objection exists in employing a train of spur wheels to drive a planing machine carriage?—(4.) What is gained by shifting the belts of a planing machine differentially?—(5.) What produces the screeching of belts so common with planing machines?—(6.) What conditions favour the shifting of planing machine belts?
【宝马5系论坛=搜新网】To return to shop processes in manufacturing. Material operated upon has to be often, sometimes continually, moved from one place to another to receive successive operations, and this movement may be either vertically or horizontally as determined, first, by the relative facility with which the material may be raised vertically, or moved horizontally, and secondly, by  the value of the ground and the amount of room that may be available, and thirdly by local conditions of arrangement. In large cities, where a great share of manufacturing is carried on, the value of ground is so great that its cost becomes a valid reason for constructing high buildings of several storeys, and moving material vertically by hoists, thus gaining surface by floors, instead of spreading the work over the ground; nor is there any disadvantage in high buildings for most kinds of manufacture, including machine fitting even, a proposition that will hardly be accepted in Europe, where fitting operations, except for small pieces, are rarely performed on upper floors.Vertical handling, although it consumes more power, as a rule costs less, is more convenient, and requires less room than horizontal handling, which is sure to interfere more or less with the constructive operations of a workshop. In machine fitting there is generally a wrong estimate placed upon the value of ground floors, which are no doubt indispensable for the heaviest class of work, and for the heaviest tools; but with an ordinary class of work, where the pieces do not exceed two tons in weight, upper floors if strong are quite as convenient, if there is proper machinery for handling material; in fact, the records of any establishment, where cost accounts are carefully made up, will show that the expense of fitting on upper floors is less than on ground floors. This is to be accounted for by better light, and a removal of the fitting from the influences and interference of other operations that must necessarily be carried on upon ground floors.2. The connection between the hammer drop and valve cannot be positive, but must be broken during the descent of the drop.
Shaping machines are generally provided with adjustable vices, devices for planing circular forms, and other details which cannot be so conveniently employed with planing machines. Another feature of shaping machines is a positive range of the cutting stroke produced by crank motion, which permits tools to be stopped with precision at any point; this admits of planing  slots, keyways, and such work as cannot well be performed upon common planing machines.In studying improvements with a view to practical gain, a learner can have no reasonable hope of accomplishing much in fields already gone over by able engineers, nor in demonstrating anything new in what may be called exhausted subjects, such as steam-engines or water-wheels; he should rather choose new and special subjects, but avoid schemes not in some degree confirmed by existing practice.The title of a drawing is a feature that has much to do with its appearance, and the impression conveyed to the mind of an observer. While it can add nothing to the real value of a drawing, it is so easy to make plain letters, that the apprentice is urged to learn this as soon as he begins to draw; not to make fancy letters, nor indeed any kind except plain block letters, which can be rapidly laid out and finished, and consequently employed to a greater extent. By drawing six parallel lines, making five spaces, and then crossing them with equidistant lines, the points and angles in block letters are determined; after a little practice, it becomes the work of but a few minutes to put down a title or other matter on a drawing so that it can be seen and read at a glance in searching for sheets or details.
Reciprocating tools are divided into those wherein the cutting movement is given to the tools, as in shaping and slotting machines, and machines wherein the cutting movement is given to the material to be planed, as in a common planing machine. Very strangely we find in general practice that machine tools for both the heaviest and the lightest class of work, such as shaping, and butting, operate upon the first principle, while pieces of a medium size are generally planed by being moved in contact with stationary tools.3. The strains to which shafts are subjected are the torsional strain of transmission, transverse strain from belts and wheels, and strains from accidents, such as the winding of belts.The effect of tempering baths is as their conducting power; chemicals except as they may contribute to the conducting properties of a bath, may safely be disregarded. For baths, cold or ice water loaded with salt for extreme hardness, and warm oil for tools that are thin and do not require to be very hard, are the two extremes outside of which nothing is required in ordinary practice.
Third. Combination machines can only be employed with success when one attendant performs all the operations, and when the change from one to another requires but little adjustment and re-arrangement.5. The obvious means of attaining this independent movement of the valve gear, is by the momentum of some part set in motion by the hammer-drop, or by the force of gravity reacting on this auxiliary agent.
【宝马5系论坛=搜新网】Conventional custom has assigned blue as a tint for wrought iron, neutral or pale pink for cast iron, and purple for steel. Wood is generally distinguished by "graining," which is easily done, and looks well.No one has been able to explain clearly why a sudden change of temperature hardens steel, nor why it assumes various shades of colour at different degrees of hardness; we only know the fact, and that steel fortunately has such properties.
【宝马5系论坛=搜新网】Fifth. The cost of special adaptation, and the usual inconvenience of fitting combination machines when their parts operate independently, often equals and sometimes exceeds what is saved in framing and floor space.
Questions and answers constitute the principal medium for acquiring technical information, and engineering apprentices should carefully study the philosophy of questions and answers, just as he does the principles of machinery. Without the art of questioning but slow progress will be made in learning shop manipulation. A proper question is one which the person asked will understand, and the answer be understood when it is given; not an easy rule, but a correct one. The main point is to consider questions before they are asked; make them relevant to the work in hand, and not too many. To ask frequent questions, is to convey an impression that the answers are not considered, an inference which is certainly a fair one, if the questions relate to a subject demanding some consideration. If a man is asked one minute what diametrical pitch means, and the next minute how much cast iron shrinks in cooling, he is very apt to be disgusted, and think the second question not worth answering.The arrangement of patterns with reference to having certain parts of castings solid and clean is an important matter, yet one that is comparatively easy to understand. Supposing the iron in a mould to be in a melted state, and to contain, as it always must, loose sand and 'scruff,' and that the weight of the dirt is to melted iron as the weight of cork is to water, it is easy to see where this dirt would lodge, and where it would be found in the castings. The top of a mould or cope, as it is called, contains the dirt, while the bottom or drag side is generally clean and sound: the rule is to arrange patterns so that the surfaces to be finished will come on the bottom or drag side.